the molten chloride salt fast reactor


The Elysium Molten Chloride Salt Fast Reactor (MCSFR) is state-of-the-art in its design. Elysium's technology is unique as it can provide base-load and clean power while addressing the current issues in the nuclear power industry.  Based on demonstrated technology in the 1960s, Elysium has adapted  and improved the molten salt  reactor design for commercial deployment. In addition, the Elysium reactor  has the ability to consume spent nuclear fuel and weapons waste transforming it into  useful energy. 

The Elysium MCSFR will be built utilizing existing code-qualified materials and  relies on natural processes. Elysium is simplifying engineering systems saving cost with natural techniques for passive  operation and safety.










*All reactor graphics are notional

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a simpler reactor 

Use of Code Qualified Materials

Comprised of simple structures with thin walled vessels benefiting from lower operational pressure. Elysium's reactor design is focused on incorporating materials, salt chemistry, and components that have high technical readiness today, reducing cost and time for development and testing. 

Substantially Autonomous

Enables inherent passive reactor operations and safety response, and simplified reactor control systems, thus increasing safety and reducing cost by eliminating  human operator actions.

Low Maintenance Needs

No need to frequently replace components during reactor lifetime such as solid fuel rods, that are used in today's nuclear power plants, and moderators used in thermal molten salt reactors

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The MCSFR derives its benefits from its simpler design, use of liquid fuels, passive safety features, and low pressure system that enables significant economic, safety, and environmental benefits. 

Highlights of MCSFR benefits include:









Safe and Reliable Energy

Low Pressure System

The reactor is designed to operate at near atmospheric pressures (more than 15 times lower than today’s  conventional reactors) and does not incorporate any water in or adjacent to the fuel salt. This eliminates the possibility for high stored-energy excursions,  such as a rapid loss of coolant accident that results in pressurization and harsh containment environments due to the phase change of a water coolant to steam in the reactor compartment.

Continuous Fission Product Removal

Because fuel and fission products are liquid and a chloride salt is used, selected fission products can be removed from the reactor during operation, minimizing the inventory of radioactive material in the reactor at any given time and reducing the effects of fission product absorptions. 

Passively Safe

The Elysium reactor uses several passive safety features such as a freeze plug. A freeze plug is a section of pipe that is actively cooled to produce and maintain a plug of frozen salt. If temperature limits are exceeded or electrical  power is lost, the plug melts and the contents of the reactor drain to passively cooled tanks that are configured for safe shutdown in sub-critical geometries with passive cooling.

Below Grade

Locating the reactor underground protects the facility from airborne hazards like airplanes and tornadoes and, coupled with chemical ionic salt bonding of fission products and the natural freezing of leaked salt, reduces the likelihood of airborne radioactive release in the case of an unlikely event.

Short-Lived Waste

Because the Elysium reactor burns long-lived radioactive transuranics (plutonium and minor actinides) to produce power and transmutes long-lived fission products (e.g., lanthanides), these products are converted into shorter-lived fission products. These fission products generally decay to background levels in about 300 years, as opposed to over 10,000 years for conventional solid-fuel reactors waste.

Negative Coefficients of Reactivity

The Elysium reactor has clear negative coolant temperature and void coefficients of reactivity;  reactor power will decrease as temperature increases or if bubbles form in the molten salt. This is fundamentally important  to enable load following without operator intervention, to allow inherent passive reactor operations and safety response, and to simplify reactor control systems, thus increasing safety and reducing cost by eliminating  human operator actions.

Comparison to the containment structure/missile barrier for AP-1000.

Comparison to the containment structure/missile barrier for AP-1000.

Significant Cost Advantages

flexible Power Rating

With a capacity of 1 GW electric, the Elysium MCSFR can provide baseload electricity amounting to sales of ~$400 million every year. Producing and selling large amounts of power enables the utility to recoup these fixed costs quickly and maximize economic viability of the design.  However, if required and/or under the right economics, the Elysium MCSFR can provide low power levels.

Reduced Construction Costs

The Elysium MCSFR operates at relatively low pressures, which dramatically reduces the size and cost of the reactor vessel and containment buildings relative to conventional pressurized water reactors. Additional costs associated with solid fuel fabrication and validation are also eliminated.  Passive safety systems, also reduce cost relative to emergency coolant injection systems and other similar systems in conventional reactors.  These factors lead to significant savings in its construction costs relative to conventional reactors.

High Fuel Utilization

Using a liquid fuel and a fast neutron spectrum allows for the  efficient utilization of almost all the nuclear fuel material leading to lower total fuel costs over the lifetime of the reactor. Elysium’s reactor burns over 95% of fuel, as opposed to 1-4% for thermal water reactors. Even after a reactor is decommissioned, the fuel can be reused in follow-on reactors.

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A Proliferation Resistant TECHNOLOGY

Consumes Nuclear Waste

Elysium's design is a fast-spectrum reactor meaning the majority of fissions are caused by high-energy (fast) neutrons. This enables conversion of fertile isotopes into energy-producing fuel, efficiently using nuclear fuel, and closing the fuel cycle. In addition, this can enable the reactor to be fueled with spent nuclear fuel from water reactors. The Elysium MCSFR closes  both the water reactor and its own fuel cycle.

Reduce Stockpiles

Plutonium from weapons stockpiles and spent fuel separations currently presents a proliferation concern worldwide. Elysium's fuel salt chemistry lends itself to incorporation of weapons-grade or reactor-grade plutonium, which provides a path to stockpile reduction.  Since no actinides are removed from the reactor, the Elysium fuel cycle is not a proliferation concern. 

Secure Facility

Facility design minimizes external threats, and the reactor is below grade. In addition, since the reactor does not produce spent fuel actinide waste, the security risk of storing spent fuel onsite (as with conventional nuclear reactors) is eliminated. Once added to the reactor, actinides are never intentionally removed from the reactor compartment, which is sealed and monitored. 

technical overview

Name:  Molten Chloride Salt Fast Reactor

Reactor Type:  Molten Salt Reactor

Neutron Spectrum:  Fast

Fuel Form:  Liquid


Salt Form:  Chloride based Fuel Salt

Moderator:  None

Thermal Capacity:  2500.00 MWth

Base Electrical Capacity:  1000 MWe (Flexible)



Fuel Cycle:  Closed

Designers:  Elysium Industries Limited / Elysium Industries USA

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